A rare cause of excessive daytime sleepiness, which usually manifests in adolescence or early adulthood. Patients commonly describe long sleep time, unrefreshing naps, difficulty awakening from sleep, and sleep inertia or sleep drunkenness, which is a state of incomplete wakefulness. As a consequence their daytime function is significantly impaired, affecting several areas of their life. Diagnosis is usually reached by a sleep physician, after appropriate testing including a sleep study and multiple sleep latency test.
Medications used include stimulants and other wake promoting medications.